ACNE

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ACNE

What is acne?

Tiny pores on your skin often become clogged due to oil, bacteria, dead skin cells, and dirt. This causes the skin to become inflamed and leads to the formation of a pimple or zit or acne. Acne is a common condition mainly affecting adolescent age group but can be seen in all age groups. This condition can be painful, leave scars, and often affects self-esteem, especially in adolescents. Due to this, visiting a dermatologist is very important and we at Dr. Latika Arya Skin & Aesthetic Clinic understand your concern and help you clear your acne effectively.

Acne can occur on various areas like face, neck, upper back and upper chest and can leave behind scars on the affected area. It can affect the individual both psychologically and psychosocially thus impacting the quality of life. The earlier we start the treatment, the lower are the risk of such problems.

ACNE

What is acne?

Tiny pores on your skin often become clogged due to oil, bacteria, dead skin cells, and dirt. This causes the skin to become inflamed and leads to the formation of a pimple or zit or acne. Acne is a common condition mainly affecting adolescent age group but can be seen in all age groups. This condition can be painful, leave scars, and often affects self-esteem, especially in adolescents. Due to this, visiting a dermatologist is very important and we at Dr. Latika Arya Skin & Aesthetic Clinic understand your concern and help you clear your acne effectively.

Acne can occur on various areas like face, neck, upper back and upper chest and can leave behind scars on the affected area. It can affect the individual both psychologically and psychosocially thus impacting the quality of life. The earlier we start the treatment, the lower are the risk of such problems.

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What causes acne?

The main factors that cause acne are excessive oil production, clogging of hair follicles by oil and dead skin, bacteria, and excess activity of the hormone called androgen.

Human skin has numerous pores that connect to the oil glands present beneath the surface. The glands are connected to the pores by follicles.

The gland beneath the skin produces the oily secretion called sebum. The sebum keeps the skin surface soft and lubricated. Any problem in this lubrication process can cause acne. It can result into acne when:

  1. The follicle produces too much oil
  2. Dead skin cells and dirt blocks the pores of skin
  3. Build-up of bacteria inside the pores

These problems can result in the development of pimples. Pimples are the raised red area with white-coloured center that develops when clogged hair follicles become inflamed or infected with bacteria. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the bacteria that shelters on skin and can contribute to infectious pimples.

Various other factors that can trigger or aggravate acne condition:

  1. Hormones like androgens generally increase in boys and girls during puberty, causing the glands to enlarge and produce more sebum
  2. Certain medications containing androgen and lithium
  3. Diet rich in carbohydrates such as bread, chips can worsen acne
  4. Emotional stress
  5. Greasy cosmetics
  6. Menstruation
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What causes acne?

The main factors that cause acne are excessive oil production, clogging of hair follicles by oil and dead skin, bacteria, and excess activity of the hormone called androgen.

Human skin has numerous pores that connect to the oil glands present beneath the surface. The glands are connected to the pores by follicles.

The gland beneath the skin produces the oily secretion called sebum. The sebum keeps the skin surface soft and lubricated. Any problem in this lubrication process can cause acne. It can result into acne when:

  1. The follicle produces too much oil
  2. Dead skin cells and dirt blocks the pores of skin
  3. Build-up of bacteria inside the pores

These problems can result in the development of pimples. Pimples are the raised red area with white-coloured center that develops when clogged hair follicles become inflamed or infected with bacteria. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the bacteria that shelters on skin and can contribute to infectious pimples.

Various other factors that can trigger or aggravate acne condition:

  1. Hormones like androgens generally increase in boys and girls during puberty, causing the glands to enlarge and produce more sebum
  2. Certain medications containing androgen and lithium
  3. Diet rich in carbohydrates such as bread, chips can worsen acne
  4. Emotional stress
  5. Greasy cosmetics
  6. Menstruation

What are the types of

Acne?

Acne varies in size, colour, severity and the amount of pain. They may be noninflammatory or inflammatory.

Noninflammatory acne:- Noninflammatory acne includes blackheads and whiteheads. These generally do not lead to any swelling.

  • Blackheads (open comedones) – Blackheads occur when a pore is clogged by the combination of sebum and dead skin cells. They are clearly visible on the surface of the skin and are black.
  • White heads (closed plugged pores) – Whiteheads can also be formed when the skin’s pore get blocked with sebum and dead skin cells. Unlike blackheads, the top of pore is closed and they remain under the skin.

Inflammatory acne:- They are painful, red, and swollen in nature.
Along with sebum and dead skin cells, bacteria can also play a role in clogging the skin’s pore. Bacteria can lead to infection leading to painful acne.
Inflammatory acne includes papules, pustules, nodules and cysts.

  • Papules – Papules are small red and tender to touch bumps easily visible on the surface of skin.
  • Pustules – Unlike papules, they are filled with pus at the tip and are red at the base.
  • Nodules – Nodules are embedded deep beneath the skin. They are solid, large, lumpy, and painful.
  • Cysts – Cysts are the largest form of acne and are sunk even deeper than nodules and result from severe infection. They usually lead to scars.
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What are the types of

Acne?

Acne varies in size, colour, severity and the amount of pain. They may be noninflammatory or inflammatory.

Noninflammatory acne:- Noninflammatory acne includes blackheads and whiteheads. These generally do not lead to any swelling.

  • Blackheads (open comedones) – Blackheads occur when a pore is clogged by the combination of sebum and dead skin cells. They are clearly visible on the surface of the skin and are black.
  • White heads (closed plugged pores) – Whiteheads can also be formed when the skin’s pore get blocked with sebum and dead skin cells. Unlike blackheads, the top of pore is closed and they remain under the skin.

Inflammatory acne:- They are painful, red, and swollen in nature.

Along with sebum and dead skin cells, bacteria can also play a role in clogging the skin’s pore. Bacteria can lead to infection leading to painful acne.

Inflammatory acne includes papules, pustules, nodules and cysts.

  • Papules – Papules are small red and tender to touch bumps easily visible on the surface of skin.
  • Pustules – Unlike papules, they are filled with pus at the tip and are red at the base.
  • Nodules – Nodules are embedded deep beneath the skin. They are solid, large, lumpy, and painful.
  • Cysts – Cysts are the largest form of acne and are sunk even deeper than nodules and result from severe infection. They usually lead to scars.
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What are the treatments for acne?

The mild to moderate acne forms are treated with topical therapies in the form of gels, washes, lotions and creams.

  • Benzoyl peroxide accelerate the replacement of skin and slow down sebum production.
  • Topical retinoids (tretinoin, adapalene, tazarotene, isotretinoin) helps to unblock pores.
  • Topical antibiotics either alone or in combination (erythromycin and clindamycin). The combination of these two antibiotics in the concentration of 1-4% with or without zinc are useful for inflammatory acne. They help to reduce P. acnes.
  • Combination therapy consisting of benzoyl peroxide along with topical antibiotics, are found to be effective. Retinoids, along with benzoyl peroxide, are also more effective than monotherapy.
  • The moderate to severe inflammatory acnes is usually treated with systemic therapy.
  • Oral antibiotics – Combat bacterial growth and reduces inflammation. Tetracycline and erythromycin are usually prescribed.
  • Oral contraceptives – Act by reducing the androgen levels.

Diluted corticosteroids can be injected into the cyst that has become severely inflamed.

The doctor may advise specific methods like photodynamic therapy, dermabrasion, or chemical peeling in severe acne.

What precautions should we take in everyday life to prevent acne?

Having a healthy lifestyle can prevent acne.

  • Washing the face twice daily with an oil-free cleanser
  • Avoiding oily makeup
  • Removing makeup and cleaning skin before bed
  • Adequate sleep
  • Reducing stress
  • Shower after exercise
  • A healthy diet with minimal refined sugars

What are the causes of acne?

Each pore of your skin has a sebaceous/oil gland attached to it which secretes a type of oil to keep your skin moist and soft. Acne is commonly triggered at the onset of puberty due to overproduction of oil due to hormonal changes in the body. In addition there is accumulation of dead skin cells in the pores, leading to the formation of blackheads and whiteheads, which may be followed by overgrowth of bacteria, leading to pimples or acne lesions. Acne can be caused by many different reasons like unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, poor quality sleep, stress and use of comedogenic substances, and is best treated after being properly assessed.

Are there any home remedies for acne?

  • Here are some home remedies that have been seen to reduce acne in some cases.

    1 Tea tree oil- Due to its anti-inflammatory and bacteria-killing effects, applying tea tree oil is seen to have a beneficial effect in reducing the severity of acne.

    2 Aloe vera- Aloe vera gel has also been known to have antibacterial properties and has provided limited relief in some cases. Aloe vera is most effective however when used it is combined with a medicated cream and its results are much more effective.

    3 Green tea – has been seen to help provide relief. It is important to keep in mind that all these remedies are not, in any case, to be replaced with medical treatment from a proper dermatologist and should be only used after consultation and advice from a dermatologist.

Are there any home remedies for acne?

  • Here are some home remedies that have been seen to reduce acne in some cases.

    1 Tea tree oil- Due to its anti-inflammatory and bacteria-killing effects, applying tea tree oil is seen to have a beneficial effect in reducing the severity of acne.

    2 Aloe vera- Aloe vera gel has also been known to have antibacterial properties and has provided limited relief in some cases. Aloe vera is most effective however when used it is combined with a medicated cream and its results are much more effective.

    3 Green tea – has been seen to help provide relief. It is important to keep in mind that all these remedies are not, in any case, to be replaced with medical treatment from a proper dermatologist and should be only used after consultation and advice from a dermatologist.

Can acne scars be

removed?

Acne scars are a common problem which people face even after their acne has been properly treated. It can be treated however with various treatment methods such as laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, chemical peeling, needling, and rolling.

What are some common myths about acne?

Many myths exist about acne and anyone who has the condition should know about their falsehood. Some of these common myths are written below-

1 eating fatty foods- it is common to hear how eating fatty foods causes acne but research has shown that this is not true at all. Although cooking foods with high amounts of oil can increase acne due to the oil settling on your skin, consuming greasy foods does not have the same effect.

2 Hygiene- It is a common misconception that dirty skin leads to acne. This is not true and as stated earlier, acne can occur due to many different reasons but this is not one of them. Dirty skin though can lead to other complications and therefore it is important to maintain personal hygiene.

3 Using makeup- People with acne often avoid makeup due to the misconception that it increases acne. Oil-free makeup can be used by people with acne and is safe and does not clog the pores.

What ways are there to Prevent Acne?

Acne is a common condition and there are many ways in which we can help prevent acne and decrease its severity. Prevention starts at home and some of the measures that we can take to prevent acne at our homes are-

1 Using non-pore clogging(non-comedogenic) makeup

2 Washing your face daily

3 Shampooing your hair daily and keeping it out of your face.

4 Not touching your face and not squeezing any pimples.

There are also various lifestyle changes that one can make to help prevent acne build-up and these changes are -

1 Exercise regularly, this helps keep the pores unclogged.

2 Eating foods that reduce inflammation such as avocados, almonds, Kidney beans also helps.

3 Drinking a lot of water, being properly hydrated goes a long way in preventing many skin disorders including acne.

Acne is a common condition affecting many people, it can, however, be treated under the guidance of an experienced dermatologist. We at Dr. Latika Arya Skin and Aesthetic clinic believe that skin transformation can change your life and have treated thousands of patients over the years hope to provide every patient the personalized treatment they require to treat their particular condition best. Contact us at the earliest for the best results.